Background In end-stage kidney disease the dialytic cycle relates to the rate of sudden cardiac death. We hypothesized that circadian, dialytic cycles, paroxysmal arrhythmias, and cardiovascular risk factors are associated with periodic changes in heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) in incident dialysis patients. Methods We conducted a prospective ancillary study of the Predictors of Arrhythmic and Cardiovascular Risk in End Stage Renal Disease cohort (n=28; age 54±13 y; 57% men; 96% black; 33% with a history of structural heart disease; left ventricular ejection fraction 70±9%). Continuous ECG monitoring was performed using an ECG patch (Zio Patch, iRhythm) and short-term HRV was measured for three minutes every hour. HRV was measured by root mean square of the successive normal-to-normal intervals (rMSSD), high and low frequency power, Poincaré plot, and sample and Renyi entropy. Results Arrhythmias were detected in 46% (n=13). Non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) was more frequent during dialysis or within 6 hours post-dialysis, as compared to pre-or between-dialysis (63% vs. 37%, P=0.015), whereas supraventricular tachycardia was more frequent pre-/ between-dialysis, as compared to during-/ post-dialysis (84% vs. 16%, P=0.015). In adjusted for cardiovascular disease and its risk factors autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity panel (ARCH) model, VT events were associated with increased heart rate by 11.2 (95%CI 10.1-12.3) bpm (P<0.0001). During regular dialytic cycle, rMSSD demonstrated significant circadian pattern (Mesor 10.6(0.9-11.2) ms; Amplitude 1.5(1.0-3.1) ms; Peak at 02:01(20:22-03:16) am; P<0.0001), which was abolished on a second day interdialytic extension (adjusted ARCH trend for rMSSD −1.41(−1.67 to −1.15) ms per 24h; P<0.0001). Conclusion Cardiac arrhythmias associate with dialytic phase. Regular dialytic schedule preserves physiological circadian rhythm, but the second day without dialysis is characterized by parasympathetic withdrawal and a steady increase in sympathetic predominance. Subject Terms Arrhythmias, Autonomic Nervous System, Electrocardiology (ECG), Treatment.
- autonomic nervous system
- heart rate variability
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)