The Diabetes Self-management Assessment Report Tool (D-SMART®): Process evaluation and patient satisfaction

Denise Charron-Prochownik, Janice C. Zgibor, Mark Peyrot, Malinda Peeples, Janis McWilliams, Janice Koshinsky, William Noullet, Linda M. Siminerio

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present the results of the process evaluation and patient experience in completing the Diabetes Self-management Assessment Report Tool (D-SMART®), an instrument within the AADE Outcome System to assist diabetes educators to assess, facilitate, and track behavior change in the provision of diabetes self-management education (DSME). Methods: The D-SMART was integrated into computer and telephonic systems at 5 sites within the Pittsburgh Regional Initiative for Diabetes Education (PRIDE) network. Data were obtained from 290 patients with diabetes using the system at these programs via paper-and-pencil questionnaires following baseline D-SMART assessments and electronic system measurement of system performance. Process evaluation included time of completion, understanding content, usability of technology, and satisfaction with the system. Patients were 58% female and 85% Caucasian and had a mean age of 58 years. Fifty-six percent of patients had no more than a high school education, and 78% had Internet access at home. Results: Most patients reported completing the D-SMART at home (78%), in 1 attempt (86%) via the Internet (55%), and in less than 30 minutes. Seventy-six percent believed the questions were easy to understand, and 80% did not need assistance. Age was negatively associated with ease of use. Moreover, 76% of patients believed the D-SMART helped them think about their diabetes, with 67% indicating that it gave the diabetes educator good information about themselves and their diabetes. Most (94%) were satisfied with the D-SMART. Level of satisfaction was independent of the system being used. Conclusions: The D-SMART was easily completed at home in 1 attempt, content was understandable, and patients were generally satisfied with the wording of questions and selection of answers. The D-SMART is easy to use and enhanced communication between the patient and clinician; however, elderly patients may need more assistance. Computer-based and telephonic D-SMARTs appear to be feasible and useful assessment methods for diabetes educators.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)833-838
    Number of pages6
    JournalDiabetes Educator
    Issue number5
    StatePublished - Sep 2007

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
    • Health Professions (miscellaneous)


    Dive into the research topics of 'The Diabetes Self-management Assessment Report Tool (D-SMART®): Process evaluation and patient satisfaction'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this