The culture of time in neuropsychological assessment: Exploring the effects of culture-specific time attitudes on timed test performance in Russian and American samples

Anna V. Agranovich, A. T. Panter, Antonio E. Puente, Pegah Touradji

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Cultural differences in time attitudes and their effect on timed neuropsychological test performance were examined in matched non-clinical samples of 100 Russian and American adult volunteers using 8 tests that were previously reported to be relatively free of cultural bias: Color Trails Test (CTT); Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT); Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT); and Tower of London-Drexel Edition (ToLDx). A measure of time attitudes, the Culture of Time Inventory (COTI-33) was used to assess time attitudes potentially affecting time-limited testing. Americans significantly outscored Russians on CTT, SDMT, and ToLDx (p <.05) while differences in RFFT scores only approached statistical significance. Group differences also emerged in COTI-33 factor scores, which partially mediated differences in performance on CTT-1, SDMT, and ToLDx initiation time, but did not account for the effect of culture on CTT-2. Significant effect of culture was revealed in ratings of familiarity with testing procedures that was negatively related to CTT, ToLDx, and SDMT scores. Current findings indicated that attitudes toward time may influence results of time limited testing and suggested that individuals who lack familiarity with timed testing procedures tend to obtain lower scores on timed tests.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)692-701
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the International Neuropsychological Society
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2011



  • Attitudes
  • Clock time
  • Cross-cultural study
  • Cultural differences
  • Event time
  • Neuropsychological test
  • Psychological assessment
  • Russia
  • Timed tests

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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