The contribution of lead-contaminated house dust and residential soil to children's blood lead levels: A pooled analysis of 12 epidemiologic studies

Bruce P. Lanphear, Thomas D. Matte, John Rogers, Robert P. Clickner, Brian Dietz, Robert L. Bornschein, Paul Succop, Kathryn R. Mahaffey, Sherry Dixon, Warren Galke, Michael Rabinowitz, Mark Farfel, Charles Rohde, Joel Schwartz, Peter Ashley, David E. Jacobs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

In 1992, the U.S. Congress passed the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act, which requires the promulgation of health-based dust lead and soil lead standards for residential dwellings to prevent undue lead exposure in children. Unfortunately, the levels of lead in house dust and soil that are associated with elevated blood lead levels among U.S. children remain poorly defined. This pooled analysis was done to estimate the contributions of lead-contaminated house dust and soil to children's blood lead levels. The results of this pooled analysis, the most comprehensive existing epidemiologic analysis of childhood lead exposure, confirm that lead-contaminated house dust is the major source of lead exposure for children. These analyses further demonstrate that a strong relationship between interior dust lead loading and children's blood lead levels persists at dust lead levels considerably below the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's current postabatement standards and the Environmental Protection Agency's guidance levels. Finally, these analyses demonstrate that a child's age, race, mouthing behaviors, and study-site specific factors influence the predicted blood lead level at a given level of exposure. These data can be used to estimate the potential health impact of alternative health-based lead standards for residential sources of lead exposure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)51-68
Number of pages18
JournalEnvironmental research
Volume79
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1998

Keywords

  • Blood lead
  • Children
  • Environmental exposure
  • Lead exposure
  • Lead poisoning
  • Lead-contaminated house dust
  • Prevention
  • Risk assessment
  • Soil
  • Standards

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Environmental Science(all)

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  • Cite this

    Lanphear, B. P., Matte, T. D., Rogers, J., Clickner, R. P., Dietz, B., Bornschein, R. L., Succop, P., Mahaffey, K. R., Dixon, S., Galke, W., Rabinowitz, M., Farfel, M., Rohde, C., Schwartz, J., Ashley, P., & Jacobs, D. E. (1998). The contribution of lead-contaminated house dust and residential soil to children's blood lead levels: A pooled analysis of 12 epidemiologic studies. Environmental research, 79(1), 51-68. https://doi.org/10.1006/enrs.1998.3859