The Columbia Thyroid Eye Disease-Compressive Optic Neuropathy Diagnostic Formula

Alison B. Callahan, Ashley Campbell, Susel Oropesa, Aryeh Baraban, Michael Kazim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


PURPOSE: Diagnosing thyroid eye disease-compressive optic neuropathy (TED-CON) is challenging, particularly in cases lacking a relative afferent pupillary defect. Large case series of TED-CON patients and accessible diagnostic tools are lacking in the current literature. This study aims to create a mathematical formula that accurately predicts the presence or absence of CON based on the most salient clinical measures of optic neuropathy.

METHODS: A retrospective case series compares 108 patients (216 orbits) with either unilateral or bilateral TED-CON and 41 age-matched patients (82 orbits) with noncompressive TED. Utilizing clinical variables assessing optic nerve function and/or risk of compressive disease, and with the aid of generalized linear regression modeling, the authors create a mathematical formula that weighs the relative contribution of each clinical variable in the overall prediction of CON.

RESULTS: Data from 213 orbits in 110 patients derived the formula: y = -0.69 + 2.58 × (afferent pupillary defect) - 0.31 × (summed limitation of ductions) - 0.2 × (mean deviation on Humphrey visual field testing) - 0.02 × (% color plates). This accurately predicted the presence of CON (y > 0) versus non-CON (y < 0) in 82% of cases with 83% sensitivity and 81% specificity. When there was no relative afferent pupillary defect, which was the case in 63% of CON orbits, the formula correctly predicted CON in 78% of orbits with 73% sensitivity and 83% specificity.

CONCLUSIONS: The authors developed a mathematical formula, the Columbia TED-CON Diagnostic Formula (CTD Formula), that can help guide clinicians in accurately diagnosing TED-CON, particularly in the presence of bilateral disease and when no relative afferent pupillary defect is present.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S68-S71
JournalOphthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Issue number4S Suppl 1
StatePublished - Jul 1 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Ophthalmology


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