The clinically relevant pharmacogenomic changes in acute myelogenous leukemia

Ashkan Emadi, Judith E. Karp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is an extremely heterogeneous neoplasm with several clinical, pathological, genetic and molecular subtypes. Combinations of various doses and schedules of cytarabine and different anthracyclines have been the mainstay of treatment for all forms of AMLs in adult patients. Although this combination, with the addition of an occasional third agent, remains effective for treatment of some young-adult patients with de novo AML, the prognosis of AML secondary to myelodysplastic syndromes or myeloproliferative neoplasms, treatment-related AML, relapsed or refractory AML, and AML that occurs in older populations remains grim. Taken into account the heterogeneity of AML, one size does not and should not be tried to fit all. In this article, the authors review currently understood, applicable and relevant findings related to cytarabine and anthracycline drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters in adult patients with AML. To provide a prime-time example of clinical applicability of pharmacogenomics in distinguishing a subset of patients with AML who might be better responders to farnesyltransferase inhibitors, the authors also reviewed findings related to a two-gene transcript signature consisting of high RASGRP1 and low APTX, the ratio of which appears to positively predict clinical response in AML patients treated with farnesyltransferase inhibitors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1257-1269
Number of pages13
Issue number11
StatePublished - Aug 2012


  • AML
  • APTX
  • acute myelogenous leukemia
  • anthracycline
  • ara-C
  • cytarabine
  • farnesyltransferase
  • pharmacogenomic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Genetics
  • Pharmacology


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