The Clearance of Manganese Chloride in the Primate. NEWLAND, M. C., COX, C., HAMADA, R., OBERDÖRSTER, G., AND WEISS, B. (1987). Fundam. Appl Toxicol 9, 314-328. Two macaque monkeys inhaled trace amounts of 54MnCl2 for 30 min. Subsequently the chest, head, and fecal radioactivity were monitored for over a year. The chest data curve required a sum of three exponential terms, with half-times ranging from 0.2 to 187 days, to attain a satisfactory fit. Head levels peaked 40 days after acute inhalation exposure and remained elevated for over a year. The excretion of manganese through the feces was best described by a sum of two exponentials. One had a half-time of less than 1 day and the second had a half-time of 50 to 60 days. A third macaque received a 6-week continuous exposure to 54Mn through a subcutaneous osmotic pump. With this route, manganese clearance from the head occurred at a faster rate than after acute inhalation exposure. Fecal elimination following continuous subcutaneous exposure resembled that following acute inhalation. Kinetic analyses suggested that the long half-times of manganese in the head following inhalation reflected both slow disappearance from the head and replenishment from other depots.
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