The broader impacts of otitis media and sequelae for informing economic evaluations of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines

Johnna Perdrizet, Raymond A. Farkouh, Emily K. Horn, Kyla Hayford, Heather L. Sings, Matt D. Wasserman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Introduction: Otitis media (OM) is a common childhood infection. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) prevent OM episodes, thereby reducing short- and long-term clinical, economic, humanistic, and societal consequences. Most economic evaluations of PCVs focus on direct health gains and cost savings from prevented acute episodes but do not fully account for the broader societal impacts of OM prevention. Areas covered: This review explores the broader burden of OM on children, caregivers, and society to better inform future economic evaluations of PCVs. Expert opinion: OM causes a substantial burden to society through long-term sequelae, productivity losses, reduced quality of life for children and caregivers, and contribution to antimicrobial resistance from inappropriate antibiotic use. The effect of PCVs on acute OM has been recognized globally, yet the broader impact has not been consistently quantified, studied, or communicated. Economic evaluations of PCVs must evolve to include broader effects for patients, caregivers, and society from OM prevention. Future PCVs with broader coverage may further reduce OM incidence and antimicrobial resistance, but optimal uptake will depend on increasing the recognition and use of novel frameworks that include broader benefits. Communicating the full value of PCVs to decision makers may result in wider access and positive societal returns.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)499-511
Number of pages13
JournalExpert review of vaccines
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Burden of disease
  • clinical and social burden
  • cost-effectiveness analysis
  • economic evaluation
  • healthcare costs
  • hearing loss
  • otitis media
  • pneumococcal conjugate vaccines
  • quality of life
  • socioeconomic benefits

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery


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