Background: Naso-orbitoethmoid fractures associated with ipsilateral zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures are more challenging injuries than zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures alone. However, there is a paucity of information on this complex fracture pattern in the pediatric population. This study investigated the cause, treatment, and outcomes of combined zygomaticomaxillary complex and naso-orbitoethmoid fractures versus isolated zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures in pediatric patients. Methods: This was a 25-year retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients who presented to a single institution with zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures. Baseline patient demographics and clinical information, and concomitant injuries, treatment/operative management, and postoperative complications/deformities were recorded and compared between patients with combined zygomaticomaxillary complex and naso-orbitoethmoid fractures and patients with isolated zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures. Results: Forty-nine patients were identified to have had zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures in the authors' 25-year study period, of whom 46 had adequate clinical documentation and follow-up. Seventeen patients had combined zygomaticomaxillary complex-naso-orbitoethmoid fractures, of whom six had panfacial fractures. Both patient groups (zygomaticomaxillary complex only and combined zygomaticomaxillary complex-naso-orbitoethmoid fractures) were similar in terms of demographics. However, a significantly greater proportion of combined fracture patients experienced postoperative complications compared to isolated zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture patients, even after excluding those with panfacial fractures (87.5 percent versus 35.3 percent; p < 0.001). Enophthalmos (37.5 percent) and midface growth restriction (37.5 percent) were the two most common complications/deformities in all combined fracture patients. Conclusions: High-impact trauma can lead to zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures with associated naso-orbitoethmoid fractures in children. This injury pattern was found to cause significantly greater postoperative morbidity than isolated zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures alone. Thus, pediatric patients presenting with this complex facial fracture pattern should be closely monitored. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Risk, II.
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