The association of obstructive sleep apnea and left ventricular hypertrophy in obese and overweight children with history of elevated blood pressure

Colleen E. Hanlon, Edem Binka, Jeffrey S. Garofano, Laura M. Sterni, Tammy M. Brady

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Obesity is a potent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor and is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common among individuals with obesity and is also associated with CVD risk. The authors sought to determine the association of OSA, a modifiable CVD risk factor, with LVH among overweight/obese youth with elevated blood pressure (EBP). This was a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline visit of 61 consecutive overweight/obese children with history of EBP who were evaluated in a pediatric obesity hypertension clinic. OSA was defined via sleep study or validated questionnaire. Children with and without OSA were compared using Fisher's exact tests, Student's t tests, and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Multivariable logistic regression evaluated the association between OSA and LVH. In this cohort, 71.7% of the children had LVH. Children with OSA were more likely to have LVH (85.7% vs 59.4%, P = 0.047). OSA was associated with 4.11 times greater odds of LVH (95% CI 1.15, 14.65; P = 0.030), remaining significant after adjustment for age, sex, race, and BMI z-score (after adjustment for hypertension, P = 0.051). A severe obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (AHI >10) was associated with 14 times greater odds of LVH (95% CI 1.14, 172.64, P = 0.039). OSA was significantly associated with LVH among overweight/obese youth with EBP, even after adjustment for age, sex, race, and BMI z-score. Those with the most severe OSA (AHI >10) had the greatest risk for LVH. Future studies exploring the impact of OSA treatment on CVD risk in children are needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)984-990
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Clinical Hypertension
Volume21
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2019

Keywords

  • adolescents
  • cardiovascular disease
  • children
  • hypertension
  • left ventricular hypertrophy
  • obesity
  • overweight
  • pediatrics
  • sleep disorders

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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