Tuberculosis (TB) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) have a close epidemiological and pathogenetic overlap. Thus, it becomes essential to understand the relationship between ASCVD and TB outcomes. From our retrospective cohort on drug-susceptible TB patients at the National Taiwan University Hospital, we assessed the association of pre-existing ASCVD (coronary artery disease (CAD) and atherothrombotic stroke (ATS)) with 9-month all-cause and infection-related mortality and the extent of mediation by systemic inflammatory markers. We determined the effect of pre-existing ASCVD on 2-month sputum microbiological status. Among ASCVD patients, we assessed the association of statin use on mortality. Nine-month all-cause mortality was higher in CAD patients with prior acute myocardial infarction (CAD+AMI+) (adjusted HR 2.01, 95%CI 1.38–3.00) and ATS patients (aHR 2.79, 95%CI 1.92–4.07) and similarly, for infection-related mortality was higher in CAD+AMI+ (aHR 1.95, 95%CI 1.17–3.24) and ATS (aHR 2.04, 95%CI 1.19–3.46) after adjusting for confounding factors. Pre-existing CAD (AMI- or AMI+) or ATS did not change sputum culture conversion or sputum smear AFB positivity at 2 months. The CAD+AMI+ group had significantly higher levels of CRP at TB diagnosis in the multivariable linear regression analysis (Adjusted B(SE) 1.24(0.62)). CRP mediated 66% (P = 0.048) and 25% (P = 0.033) of the association all-cause mortality with CAD+AMI− and CAD+AMI+, respectively. In summary, patients with ASCVD have higher hazards of 9-month all-cause and infection-related mortality, with elevated serum inflammation mediating one to three-quarters of this association when adjusted for confounders. Statin use was associated with lower all-cause mortality among patients with ASCVD.
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