The association of area-level social class and tobacco use with adverse breast cancer characteristics among white and black women: Evidence from Maryland, 1992-2003

Ann C. Klassen, Aaron Pankiewicz, Stephanie Hsieh, Abigail Ward, Frank C. Curriero

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: In breast cancer, worse disease characteristics are associated with fewer social resources and black race. However, it is unknown whether social gradients have similar impact across race, and whether behaviors, including tobacco use, may explain a portion of the social gradient. Methods: We modeled relationships between area-level social class, tobacco spending and tumor characteristics, using 50,062 white and black cases diagnosed from 1992-2003 in Maryland, a racially and economically diverse state on the east coast of the United States. Multi-level models estimated the effect of area-level social class and tobacco consumption on tumor grade, size, and stage at diagnosis. Results: Adjusting for race, age and year of diagnosis, higher social class was associated with lower risk for tumors with histological grade 3 or 4 (O.R. 0.96, 95% C.I. 0.94,0.99), those diagnosed at SEER stage 2 or later (O.R. 0.89, 95% C.I. 0.86, 0.91), and tumor size >2 cm (O.R. 0.87, 95% C.I. 0.84, 0.90). Higher tobacco spending was associated with higher risk for higher grade (O.R. 1.01, 1.00, 1.03) and larger tumors (O.R. 1.03, 95% C.I. 1.01, 1.06), but was not statistically significantly related to later stage (O.R. 1.00, 95% C.I. 0.98, 1.02). Social class was less protective for black women, but tobacco effects were not race-specific. Conclusions: Results suggest that in one U.S. geographic area, there is a differential protection from social class for black and white women, supporting use of intersectionality theory in breast cancer disparities investigations. Area-level tobacco consumption may capture cases' direct use and second hand smoke exposure, but also may identify neighborhoods with excess cancer-related behavioral or environmental exposures, beyond those measured by social class. Given the growing global burden of both tobacco addiction and aggressive breast cancer, similar investigations across diverse geographic areas are warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number13
JournalInternational Journal of Health Geographics
Volume14
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2015

Fingerprint

Tobacco
Tobacco Use
Social Class
Breast Neoplasms
Tumors
Neoplasms
Tobacco Smoke Pollution
Environmental Exposure
hydroquinone
Breast cancer
Smoke
Coastal zones
Tumor

Keywords

  • Breast Cancer
  • Disparities
  • Race
  • Social Class
  • Tobacco

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Computer Science(all)
  • Business, Management and Accounting(all)

Cite this

The association of area-level social class and tobacco use with adverse breast cancer characteristics among white and black women : Evidence from Maryland, 1992-2003. / Klassen, Ann C.; Pankiewicz, Aaron; Hsieh, Stephanie; Ward, Abigail; Curriero, Frank C.

In: International Journal of Health Geographics, Vol. 14, No. 1, 13, 01.04.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background: In breast cancer, worse disease characteristics are associated with fewer social resources and black race. However, it is unknown whether social gradients have similar impact across race, and whether behaviors, including tobacco use, may explain a portion of the social gradient. Methods: We modeled relationships between area-level social class, tobacco spending and tumor characteristics, using 50,062 white and black cases diagnosed from 1992-2003 in Maryland, a racially and economically diverse state on the east coast of the United States. Multi-level models estimated the effect of area-level social class and tobacco consumption on tumor grade, size, and stage at diagnosis. Results: Adjusting for race, age and year of diagnosis, higher social class was associated with lower risk for tumors with histological grade 3 or 4 (O.R. 0.96, 95{\%} C.I. 0.94,0.99), those diagnosed at SEER stage 2 or later (O.R. 0.89, 95{\%} C.I. 0.86, 0.91), and tumor size >2 cm (O.R. 0.87, 95{\%} C.I. 0.84, 0.90). Higher tobacco spending was associated with higher risk for higher grade (O.R. 1.01, 1.00, 1.03) and larger tumors (O.R. 1.03, 95{\%} C.I. 1.01, 1.06), but was not statistically significantly related to later stage (O.R. 1.00, 95{\%} C.I. 0.98, 1.02). Social class was less protective for black women, but tobacco effects were not race-specific. Conclusions: Results suggest that in one U.S. geographic area, there is a differential protection from social class for black and white women, supporting use of intersectionality theory in breast cancer disparities investigations. Area-level tobacco consumption may capture cases' direct use and second hand smoke exposure, but also may identify neighborhoods with excess cancer-related behavioral or environmental exposures, beyond those measured by social class. Given the growing global burden of both tobacco addiction and aggressive breast cancer, similar investigations across diverse geographic areas are warranted.",
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