The anatomy of the pelvis in the exstrophy complex

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


We compared computerized tomography scans of the pelvis of twenty-four patients who had exstrophy of the bladder with scans of age-matched controls in order to analyze the pelvic deformity that accompanies the variably severe manifestations of this condition. The patients who had classic exstrophy of the bladder were found to have a mean of 12 degrees of external rotation of the posterior aspect of the pelvis on each side, retroversion of the acetabula, a mean additional 18 degrees of external rotation and 30 per cent shortening of the pubic rami, and progressive diastasis of the symphysis pubis. The foot-progression angle demonstrated 20 to 30 degrees of external rotation beyond the normal limits seen in early childhood, but this improved with age. The patients who had exstrophy of the cloaca and the bladder not only had all of these pelvic deformities to a greater degree but also had asymmetry of measured parameters between the right and left sides of the pelvis, malformation of the sacroiliac joints, and occasional dislocation of the hip. An understanding of the pelvic anatomy that accompanies exstrophy is essential when corrective approaches are planned. Such an understanding will improve the rate of success of both closure of the bladder and control of urinary continence postoperatively.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)177-189
Number of pages13
JournalThe Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1995


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Surgery

Cite this