The adverse health effects of tobacco and tobacco-related products

B. E. Mitchell, H. L. Sobel, M. H. Alexander

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Tobacco use continues to occur in epidemic proportions and with it, significant morbidity and mortality. One third of smokers will die prematurely of a smoking-related disease. In fact, of the five major causes of death in the United States, tobacco use is implicated in four: MI, lung cancer, strokes, and chronic obstructive lung disease. Tobacco use also contributes to many other disorders including other cancers (e.g., oral, esophageal, and cervical), other respiratory conditions such as asthma and infections, and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Environmental tobacco smoke contributes to illness and even death (e.g., SIDS). The costs of these ailments, in both economic and human terms, is staggering. This article has reviewed the adverse health effects of tobacco use, therefore, clinicians should be aware of the benefits patients will reap when they stop using this lethal substance. In many cases, the risk of tobacco-related morbidity and mortality is reduced after cessation to levels approaching those of never- users of tobacco (Fig. 1).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)463-498
Number of pages36
JournalPrimary Care - Clinics in Office Practice
Volume26
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)

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