TG13 miscellaneous etiology of cholangitis and cholecystitis

Ryota Higuchi, Tadahiro Takada, Steven M. Strasberg, Henry A. Pitt, Dirk J. Gouma, O. James Garden, Markus W. Büchler, John A. Windsor, Toshihiko Mayumi, Masahiro Yoshida, Fumihiko Miura, Yasutoshi Kimura, Kohji Okamoto, Toshifumi Gabata, Jiro Hata, Harumi Gomi, Avinash N. Supe, Palepu Jagannath, Harijt Singh, Myung Hwan KimSerafin C. Hilvano, Chen Guo Ker, Sun Whe Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper describes typical diseases and morbidities classified in the category of miscellaneous etiology of cholangitis and cholecystitis. The paper also comments on the evidence presented in the Tokyo Guidelines for the management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis (TG 07) published in 2007 and the evidence reported subsequently, as well as miscellaneous etiology that has not so far been touched on. (1) Oriental cholangitis is the type of cholangitis that occurs following intrahepatic stones and is frequently referred to as an endemic disease in Southeast Asian regions. The characteristics and diagnosis of oriental cholangitis are also commented on. (2) TG 07 recommended percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in patients with cholestasis (many of the patients have obstructive jaundice or acute cholangitis and present clinical signs due to hilar biliary stenosis or obstruction). However, the usefulness of endoscopic naso-biliary drainage has increased along with the spread of endoscopic biliary drainage procedures. (3) As for biliary tract infections in patients who underwent biliary tract surgery, the incidence rate of cholangitis after reconstruction of the biliary tract and liver transplantation is presented. (4) As for primary sclerosing cholangitis, the frequency, age of predilection and the rate of combination of inflammatory enteropathy and biliary tract cancer are presented. (5) In the case of acalculous cholecystitis, the frequency of occurrence, causative factors and complications as well as the frequency of gangrenous cholecystitis, gallbladder perforation and diagnostic accuracy are included in the updated Tokyo Guidelines 2013 (TG13). Free full-text articles and a mobile application of TG13 are available via guideline/tg13.html.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)97-105
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2013


  • Biliary infection
  • Calculous cholecystitis
  • Guidelines
  • Oriental cholangitis
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Hepatology


Dive into the research topics of 'TG13 miscellaneous etiology of cholangitis and cholecystitis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this