Text messaging adherence intervention for adolescents and young adults with chronic kidney disease: Pilot randomized controlled trial and stakeholder interviews

Cyd Eaton, Margaret Comer, Cozumel Pruette, Kevin Psoter, Kristin Riekert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Up to one-third of adolescents and young adults (11-21 years old) with chronic kidney disease exhibit suboptimal rates of adherence to renal-protective antihypertensive medications. Mobile health interventions may promote higher adherence to these medicines in these individuals, but empirical research is needed to inform best practices for applying these modalities. Objective: In this multiphase investigation, we developed and tested a theoretically informed text messaging intervention based on the COM-B model, a well-established health intervention framework stating that capability, opportunity, and motivation interactively modify health behaviors, to improve participants' antihypertensive medication adherence in a pilot randomized controlled trial. Qualitative data on user experiences were obtained. Methods: In phase 1, intervention messages (Reminder+COM-B Message) were developed via stakeholder engagement of participants and pediatric nephrologists. In phase 2, the Reminder+COM-B Message intervention was tested against a Reminder-only Message active control condition in an 8-week pilot randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome was daily electronically monitored antihypertensive medication adherence and secondary outcomes included pre-post participant surveys of adherence self-efficacy, adherence barriers, outcome expectancies for taking medicine, and motivation for and importance of taking medicine. In phase 3, qualitative interviews related to user experiences were conducted with participants in the Reminder+COM-B Message intervention group. Results: Following phase 1, 34 participants (mean age 16.59 years, 41% female, 38% African American/Black, 35% hypertension diagnosis) completed the phase 2 pilot randomized controlled trial (n=18 in the Reminder+COM-B Message intervention group, n=16 in the Reminder-only Message active control group). All participants in the Reminder+COM-B Message intervention group completed a phase 3 qualitative interview. Overall, study procedures were feasible and the Reminder+COM-B Message intervention was acceptable to the participants (eg, 15/18 participants reported reading the majority of messages sent to them, 0/18 reported that the messages reduced their desire to take medicine). Prerandomization, there were no significant group differences in the rate of change in daily adherence over time. However, postrandomization, there was a significant group by time interaction (B=.01, P=.04) in which daily adherence decreased significantly over time in the Reminder-only Message active control group but remained stable in the Reminder+COM-B Message intervention group. There were no significant differences between groups in pre-post changes in survey responses. Qualitative interviews revealed participants' perceptions of how the Reminder+COM-B Message intervention changed adherence behavior and highlighted several areas for improving the intervention (eg, adapt messaging timing, intensity, and content to match daily adherence, send praise when medicine is taken). Conclusions: The Reminder+COM-B Message intervention was feasible and acceptable to adolescents/young adults and demonstrated potential to promote participants' daily medication adherence beyond simple reminders. Further research is needed to determine the Reminder+COM-B Message intervention's mechanisms of adherence behavior change and to incorporate qualitative participant feedback into a modified version of this intervention to enhance its acceptability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere19861
JournalJournal of medical Internet research
Volume22
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2020

Keywords

  • Adherence
  • Adolescent
  • Intervention
  • Kidney
  • Kidney diseases
  • Medication adherence
  • Mobile health
  • Pediatrics
  • Young adult
  • mHealth

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Informatics

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