Text message reminders and unconditional monetary incentives to improve measles vaccination in western Kenya: Study protocol for the mobile and scalable innovations for measles immunization randomized controlled trial

Dustin Gibson, E. Wangeci Kagucia, Joyce Were, David Obor, Kyla Hayford, Benard Ochieng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Globally, 21 million children do not receive the measles vaccine each year. With high levels of mobile phone access and ownership, opportunities exist to leverage mobile health technologies to generate demand for immunization. Objective: The aim of the Mobile and Scalable Innovations for Measles Immunization trial is to determine if text message (short message service, SMS) reminders, either with or without mobile phone-based incentives, can improve measles immunization coverage and timeliness in rural western Kenya. Methods: This is a 3-arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial (RCT). Using simple randomization, caregivers in Siaya County Kenya, will be randomized and evenly allocated to 1 of 3 study arms: (1) control, (2) SMS reminders only, and (3) SMS reminders plus a 150 Kenyan Shilling (KES) incentive. Participants assigned to the SMS group will be sent SMS reminders 3 days before and on the day before the measles immunization visit scheduled for when the child is 9 months of age. Participants in the incentive arm will, in addition to SMS reminders as above, be sent an unconditional 150 KES mobile-money incentive to their mobile phone 3 days before the child becomes 9 months of age. Children will be followed up to the age of 12 months to assess the primary outcome, a measles vaccination by 10 months of age. Log-binomial regressions will be used to calculate relative risks. Results: Enrollment was completed in March 2017. We enrolled 537 caregivers and their infants into the following groups: control (n=179), SMS reminders only (n=179), and SMS reminders plus 150 KES (n=179). Results will be made publicly available in 2020. Conclusions: Few RCTs have examined the effect of text message reminders to improve measles immunization coverage. This is the first study to assess the effect of SMS reminders with and without unconditionally provided mobile-money incentives to improve measles immunization coverage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere13221
JournalJournal of medical Internet research
Volume21
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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Text Messaging
Kenya
Measles
Motivation
Immunization
Vaccination
Randomized Controlled Trials
Cell Phones
Caregivers
Measles Vaccine
Biomedical Technology
Telemedicine
Ownership
Random Allocation

Keywords

  • Kenya
  • Measles vaccine
  • Text messaging
  • Vaccination coverage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Informatics

Cite this

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title = "Text message reminders and unconditional monetary incentives to improve measles vaccination in western Kenya: Study protocol for the mobile and scalable innovations for measles immunization randomized controlled trial",
abstract = "Background: Globally, 21 million children do not receive the measles vaccine each year. With high levels of mobile phone access and ownership, opportunities exist to leverage mobile health technologies to generate demand for immunization. Objective: The aim of the Mobile and Scalable Innovations for Measles Immunization trial is to determine if text message (short message service, SMS) reminders, either with or without mobile phone-based incentives, can improve measles immunization coverage and timeliness in rural western Kenya. Methods: This is a 3-arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial (RCT). Using simple randomization, caregivers in Siaya County Kenya, will be randomized and evenly allocated to 1 of 3 study arms: (1) control, (2) SMS reminders only, and (3) SMS reminders plus a 150 Kenyan Shilling (KES) incentive. Participants assigned to the SMS group will be sent SMS reminders 3 days before and on the day before the measles immunization visit scheduled for when the child is 9 months of age. Participants in the incentive arm will, in addition to SMS reminders as above, be sent an unconditional 150 KES mobile-money incentive to their mobile phone 3 days before the child becomes 9 months of age. Children will be followed up to the age of 12 months to assess the primary outcome, a measles vaccination by 10 months of age. Log-binomial regressions will be used to calculate relative risks. Results: Enrollment was completed in March 2017. We enrolled 537 caregivers and their infants into the following groups: control (n=179), SMS reminders only (n=179), and SMS reminders plus 150 KES (n=179). Results will be made publicly available in 2020. Conclusions: Few RCTs have examined the effect of text message reminders to improve measles immunization coverage. This is the first study to assess the effect of SMS reminders with and without unconditionally provided mobile-money incentives to improve measles immunization coverage.",
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AU - Obor, David

AU - Hayford, Kyla

AU - Ochieng, Benard

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AB - Background: Globally, 21 million children do not receive the measles vaccine each year. With high levels of mobile phone access and ownership, opportunities exist to leverage mobile health technologies to generate demand for immunization. Objective: The aim of the Mobile and Scalable Innovations for Measles Immunization trial is to determine if text message (short message service, SMS) reminders, either with or without mobile phone-based incentives, can improve measles immunization coverage and timeliness in rural western Kenya. Methods: This is a 3-arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial (RCT). Using simple randomization, caregivers in Siaya County Kenya, will be randomized and evenly allocated to 1 of 3 study arms: (1) control, (2) SMS reminders only, and (3) SMS reminders plus a 150 Kenyan Shilling (KES) incentive. Participants assigned to the SMS group will be sent SMS reminders 3 days before and on the day before the measles immunization visit scheduled for when the child is 9 months of age. Participants in the incentive arm will, in addition to SMS reminders as above, be sent an unconditional 150 KES mobile-money incentive to their mobile phone 3 days before the child becomes 9 months of age. Children will be followed up to the age of 12 months to assess the primary outcome, a measles vaccination by 10 months of age. Log-binomial regressions will be used to calculate relative risks. Results: Enrollment was completed in March 2017. We enrolled 537 caregivers and their infants into the following groups: control (n=179), SMS reminders only (n=179), and SMS reminders plus 150 KES (n=179). Results will be made publicly available in 2020. Conclusions: Few RCTs have examined the effect of text message reminders to improve measles immunization coverage. This is the first study to assess the effect of SMS reminders with and without unconditionally provided mobile-money incentives to improve measles immunization coverage.

KW - Kenya

KW - Measles vaccine

KW - Text messaging

KW - Vaccination coverage

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