Testis-sparing surgery and scrotal violation for testicular masses suspicious for malignancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Hiten D. Patel, Mohit Gupta, Joseph G. Cheaib, Ritu Sharma, Allen Zhang, Eric B. Bass, Phillip M. Pierorazio

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Radical inguinal orchiectomy is the standard of care for men diagnosed with a testicular mass suspicious for germ cell tumor (TGCT). Nontraditional approaches to management, including testis-sparing surgery (TSS) and scrotal orchiectomy, occur in clinical practice. We systematically reviewed studies evaluating outcomes after TSS and scrotal violation for the management of a suspected TGCT. We used PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (January 1980–December 2018) to search for studies addressing morbidity and oncologic outcomes after TSS or scrotal violation for testicular masses concerning for TGCT. Paired reviewers independently screened abstracts for inclusion, sequentially extracted data, and assessed study quality. Twenty-one studies were included (10 TSS, 11 scrotal violation). Risk of local recurrence after TSS on meta-analysis was 7.5% after 3 to 5 years (absolute proportion reported in studies: 10.9%). Aggregated rates of positive margins (1.4%) and testicular atrophy (2.8%) across studies were low with 7.1% of patients requiring subsequent androgen therapy. Scrotal violation led to a higher aggregate risk of local recurrence compared to no scrotal violation (2.5% vs. 0.0%, P < 0.001) but did not appear to impact subsequent metastasis and survival in the short term (3–5 years). Most patients received adjuvant therapy after scrotal violation with 9.3% found to harbor residual primary tumor after scrotal scar excision. TSS carries a quantifiable risk of local recurrence after 3 to 5 years despite the majority receiving adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy. Scrotal violation carries a risk of local recurrence but does not appear to impact subsequent metastasis and survival in the short term.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)344-353
Number of pages10
JournalUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
Volume38
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2020

Keywords

  • Germ cell tumor
  • Scrotal violation
  • Systematic review
  • Testicular cancer
  • Testis-sparing surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Urology

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