Testing human hair for drugs of abuse. III. Identification of heroin and 6-acetylmorphine as indicators of heroin use

B. A. Goldberger, Y. H. Caplan, T. Maguire, E. J. Cone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Hair samples from 20 documented heroin users contained 6-acetylmorphine, a unique metabolite of heroin, in all samples. Heroin was identified in smaller amounts in seven of these samples. The identity of 6-acetylmorphine and heroin was established by comparison of full scan spectra of extracts to standard reference materials. The presence of 6-acetyl-morphine generally predominated over heroin, morphine, and codeine. The mean concentrations of analytes were as follows: 6-acetylmorphine, 0.90 ng/mg, N = 20; heroin, 0.17 ng/mg, N = 7; morphine, 0.26 ng/mg, N = 20; codeine, 0.18 ng/mg, N = 15. Analysis of hair samples obtained from 10 drug-free control subjects were negative for 6-acetylmorphine, morphine, and codeine. However, a small interfering peak was observed at the retention time for heroin. Control samples soaked in aqueous solutions of heroin and 6-acetylmorphine were found to be contaminated, even though an initial wash step was included in the analysis. These data suggest that hair analysis for 6-acetylmorphine can be used to differentiate heroin users from other types of opiate exposure (e.g., poppy seed, licit morphine, and codeine); however, environmental contamination can potentially produce false positives during opiate testing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)226-231
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Analytical Toxicology
Volume15
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1991

Fingerprint

Heroin
Street Drugs
hair
Hair
drug
Codeine
Testing
Metabolites
Morphine
Seed
Contamination
Opiate Alkaloids
metabolite
aqueous solution
seed
Papaver
6-O-monoacetylmorphine
indicator
analysis
Drug and Narcotic Control

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Toxicology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

Testing human hair for drugs of abuse. III. Identification of heroin and 6-acetylmorphine as indicators of heroin use. / Goldberger, B. A.; Caplan, Y. H.; Maguire, T.; Cone, E. J.

In: Journal of Analytical Toxicology, Vol. 15, No. 5, 1991, p. 226-231.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Goldberger, B. A. ; Caplan, Y. H. ; Maguire, T. ; Cone, E. J. / Testing human hair for drugs of abuse. III. Identification of heroin and 6-acetylmorphine as indicators of heroin use. In: Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 1991 ; Vol. 15, No. 5. pp. 226-231.
@article{ded932b134c84d379ab45fc6611da627,
title = "Testing human hair for drugs of abuse. III. Identification of heroin and 6-acetylmorphine as indicators of heroin use",
abstract = "Hair samples from 20 documented heroin users contained 6-acetylmorphine, a unique metabolite of heroin, in all samples. Heroin was identified in smaller amounts in seven of these samples. The identity of 6-acetylmorphine and heroin was established by comparison of full scan spectra of extracts to standard reference materials. The presence of 6-acetyl-morphine generally predominated over heroin, morphine, and codeine. The mean concentrations of analytes were as follows: 6-acetylmorphine, 0.90 ng/mg, N = 20; heroin, 0.17 ng/mg, N = 7; morphine, 0.26 ng/mg, N = 20; codeine, 0.18 ng/mg, N = 15. Analysis of hair samples obtained from 10 drug-free control subjects were negative for 6-acetylmorphine, morphine, and codeine. However, a small interfering peak was observed at the retention time for heroin. Control samples soaked in aqueous solutions of heroin and 6-acetylmorphine were found to be contaminated, even though an initial wash step was included in the analysis. These data suggest that hair analysis for 6-acetylmorphine can be used to differentiate heroin users from other types of opiate exposure (e.g., poppy seed, licit morphine, and codeine); however, environmental contamination can potentially produce false positives during opiate testing.",
author = "Goldberger, {B. A.} and Caplan, {Y. H.} and T. Maguire and Cone, {E. J.}",
year = "1991",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "15",
pages = "226--231",
journal = "Journal of Analytical Toxicology",
issn = "0146-4760",
publisher = "Preston Publications",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Testing human hair for drugs of abuse. III. Identification of heroin and 6-acetylmorphine as indicators of heroin use

AU - Goldberger, B. A.

AU - Caplan, Y. H.

AU - Maguire, T.

AU - Cone, E. J.

PY - 1991

Y1 - 1991

N2 - Hair samples from 20 documented heroin users contained 6-acetylmorphine, a unique metabolite of heroin, in all samples. Heroin was identified in smaller amounts in seven of these samples. The identity of 6-acetylmorphine and heroin was established by comparison of full scan spectra of extracts to standard reference materials. The presence of 6-acetyl-morphine generally predominated over heroin, morphine, and codeine. The mean concentrations of analytes were as follows: 6-acetylmorphine, 0.90 ng/mg, N = 20; heroin, 0.17 ng/mg, N = 7; morphine, 0.26 ng/mg, N = 20; codeine, 0.18 ng/mg, N = 15. Analysis of hair samples obtained from 10 drug-free control subjects were negative for 6-acetylmorphine, morphine, and codeine. However, a small interfering peak was observed at the retention time for heroin. Control samples soaked in aqueous solutions of heroin and 6-acetylmorphine were found to be contaminated, even though an initial wash step was included in the analysis. These data suggest that hair analysis for 6-acetylmorphine can be used to differentiate heroin users from other types of opiate exposure (e.g., poppy seed, licit morphine, and codeine); however, environmental contamination can potentially produce false positives during opiate testing.

AB - Hair samples from 20 documented heroin users contained 6-acetylmorphine, a unique metabolite of heroin, in all samples. Heroin was identified in smaller amounts in seven of these samples. The identity of 6-acetylmorphine and heroin was established by comparison of full scan spectra of extracts to standard reference materials. The presence of 6-acetyl-morphine generally predominated over heroin, morphine, and codeine. The mean concentrations of analytes were as follows: 6-acetylmorphine, 0.90 ng/mg, N = 20; heroin, 0.17 ng/mg, N = 7; morphine, 0.26 ng/mg, N = 20; codeine, 0.18 ng/mg, N = 15. Analysis of hair samples obtained from 10 drug-free control subjects were negative for 6-acetylmorphine, morphine, and codeine. However, a small interfering peak was observed at the retention time for heroin. Control samples soaked in aqueous solutions of heroin and 6-acetylmorphine were found to be contaminated, even though an initial wash step was included in the analysis. These data suggest that hair analysis for 6-acetylmorphine can be used to differentiate heroin users from other types of opiate exposure (e.g., poppy seed, licit morphine, and codeine); however, environmental contamination can potentially produce false positives during opiate testing.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0026055004&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0026055004&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 1960970

AN - SCOPUS:0026055004

VL - 15

SP - 226

EP - 231

JO - Journal of Analytical Toxicology

JF - Journal of Analytical Toxicology

SN - 0146-4760

IS - 5

ER -