The time course of appearance of morphine and codeine in beard after single dose administration in two human subjects was monitored by radioimmunoassay and confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Both morphine and codeine appeared in beard approximately 78 days after drug administration at a time when drug levels in urine, plasma, and saliva were not detectable and drug-induced effects had disappeared. Drug levels in beard appeared to be dose-related suggesting that hair analysis can provide evidence of time and degree of drug exposure.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry
- Environmental Chemistry
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
- Chemical Health and Safety