The assessment of the combined effects of multiple phthalate exposures at low levels is a newly developed concept to avoid underestimating their actual cumulative health risk. A previous study included 3455 Chinese pregnant women. Each woman provided up to three urine samples (in total 9529). This previous study characterized the concentrations of phthalate metabolites. In the present study, the data from 9529 samples was reanalyzed to examine the cumulative risk assessment (CRA) with two models: (1) the creatinine-based and (2) the volume-based. Hazard index (HI) values for three phthalates, dibutyl phthalate, butyl benzyl phthalate, and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, in the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy, were calculated, respectively. In creatinine-based model, 3.43%, 14.63%, and 17.28% of women showed HI based on the European Food Safety Authority tolerable daily intake exceeding 1 in the first, second, and third trimester of pregnancy, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient of HI was 0.49 (95% confidence interval: 0.46-0.53). Spearman correlations between HI of the creatinine model and σ androgen disruptor (a developed potency weighted approach) ranged from 0.824 to 0.984. In summary, this study suggested a considerable risk of cumulative exposure to phthalates during the whole gestation in Chinese pregnant women. In addition, moderate temporal reproducibility indicated that single HI, estimated by the phthalate concentration in single spot of urine, seemed representative to describe the throughout pregnancy CRA. Finally, strong correlation between HI of the creatinine model and σ androgen disruptor revealed that the creatinine-based model was more appropriate to evaluate the CRA.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry