Background As high healthcare costs are increasing scrutinized, a movement toward reducing patient hospital admissions and lengths of stay has emerged, particularly for operations that may be performed safely in the outpatient setting. Our aim is to describe recent temporal trends in the proportion of dialysis access procedures performed on an inpatient versus outpatient basis and to determine the effects of these changes on perioperative morbidity and mortality. Methods The 2005–2008 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried for all primary arteriovenous fistula (AVF) procedures using current procedural terminology codes. Changes in the proportions of inpatient versus outpatient operations performed by year, as well as the associated 30-day postoperative morbidity and mortality, were analyzed using univariable statistics and multivariable logistic regression. Results Two thousand nine hundred fifty AVF procedures were performed over the study period. Overall, 71.7% (n = 2,114) were performed on an outpatient basis. Inpatient procedures were associated with higher 30-day morbidity (10.5% vs. 4.5%) and mortality (2.8% vs. 0.7%) than outpatient procedures (both, P < 0.001). There was a significant increase in the proportion of procedures performed on an outpatient basis over time (2005: 56% vs. 2008: 75%; P < 0.001). There were no changes in postoperative morbidity or mortality for inpatient or outpatient AVF over time (P ≥ 0.36). Independent determinants of having an inpatient procedure included younger age (OR 0.99), increasing ASA class (ASA IV OR 1.56), congestive heart failure (OR 3.32), recent ascites (OR 3.25), poor functional status (OR 3.22), the presence of an open wound (OR 1.91), and recent sepsis (OR 6.06) (all, P < 0.01). Acute renal failure (OR 2.60) and current dialysis (OR 1.44) were also predictive (P < 0.001). After correcting for baseline differences between groups, the adjusted OR for both morbidity (aOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.38–2.69) and mortality (aOR 2.85, 95% CI 1.36–5.95) remained significantly higher for inpatient versus outpatient AVF. Conclusions Dialysis access operations are increasingly being performed on an outpatient basis, with stable perioperative outcomes. Inpatient procedures are associated with worse outcomes, likely because they are reserved for patients with acute illnesses, serious comorbidities, and poor functional status. Overall, for appropriately selected patients, the movement toward performing more elective dialysis access operations on an outpatient basis is associated with acceptable outcomes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine