Temperature rises in the crystalline lens from focal irradiation

Tsutomu Okuno, Masami Kojima, Ikuho Hata, David H. Sliney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Many types of ophthalmic instruments produce a concentrated focal irradiance in the lens. Instruments that illuminate large areas of the retina-known as "Maxwellian-view," are but one example, and there are concerns about the potential hazards associated with this optical system. The transfer of the heat generated in the human eye in Maxwellian-view illumination or similar focal-beam situations was simulated using a mathematical model to determine the temperature elevations induced in the human eye. The maximum temperature rise in the lens region was examined to quantitatively assess the potential thermal hazard to the lens. It was shown that Maxwellian-view illumination or similar focal-beam situations can cause thermal injury to the lens under certain conditions, and that this hazard is greater for incident wavelengths of about 320-420 nm than for longer wavelengths. The risk of thermal injury increases as exposure duration increases, and the risk tends to increase as the beam waist diameter or Maxwellian-view angle decreases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)214-222
Number of pages9
JournalHealth Physics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Health effects
  • Lasers
  • Optics
  • Radiation, nonionizing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Toxicology
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Environmental Science(all)


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