TAVI Beyond 3 Years: Durability and Predictors for Survival

Faisal Rahman, Jon R. Resar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

The use of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has greatly increased over the past 2 decades and now has overtaken surgical aortic valve replacement. We have limited data regarding the long-term durability of TAVI and the predictors of survival. Calcification, inflammation, fibrous tissue deposition, and mechanical stress are important in the structural deterioration of surgical bioprosthetic valves and likely contribute to TAVI durability. However, TAVI has several differences to surgical valve replacement such as valve preparation, valve to native anatomy interaction, and valve sizing which all likely contribute to durability and long-term survival. Most procedures have been performed on older patients and therefore long-term follow-up studies have noted mortality of approximately 50% at 5 years and 75% by 7 years. Current data are limited by the high mortality of patients who have received TAVI often as a result of age, frailty, and other competing comorbidities. TAVI as compared with surgical valve replacement is associated with several differences including higher conduction abnormalities (i.e., need for pacemakers) and paravalvular leak, both of which may affect long-term morbidity and mortality. In this review, we discuss the current status of our knowledge and identify areas that require further investigation.

Keywords

  • TAVI
  • TAVR
  • survival
  • valve durability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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