The past decade of cancer research has been marked by a growing appreciation of the role of immunity in cancer. Mutations in the tumour genome can cause tumours to express mutant proteins that are tumour specific and not expressed on normal cells (neoantigens). These neoantigens are an attractive immune target because their selective expression on tumours may minimize immune tolerance as well as the risk of autoimmunity. In this Review we discuss the emerging evidence that neoantigens are recognized by the immune system and can be targeted to increase antitumour immunity. We also provide a framework for personalized cancer immunotherapy through the identification and selective targeting of individual tumour neoantigens, and present the potential benefits and obstacles to this approach of targeted immunotherapy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research