Targeted prostate biopsy using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance is improving the accuracy of prostate cancer (CaP) diagnosis. This new biopsy technology is especially important for men undergoing active surveillance, improving patient selection for enrollment and enabling precise longitudinal monitoring. Magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound fusion biopsy allows for 3 functions not previously possible with US-guided biopsy: targeting of suspicious regions, template-mapping for systematic sampling, and tracking of cancer foci over time. This article reviews the evolving role of the new biopsy methods in active surveillance, including the UCLA Active Surveillance pathway, which has incorporated magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound fusion biopsy from program inception as a possible model.
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