Agents that restore vascular patency in stroke also the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). As Factor IXa is a key intermediary in the intrinsic pathway of coagulation, targeted inhibition of Factor IXa-dependent coagulation might inhibit microvascular thrombosis in stroke without impairing extrinsic hemostatic mechanisms that limit ICH. A competitive inhibitor of native Factor IXa for assembly into the intrinsic Factor X activation complex, Factor IXai, was prepared by covalent modification of the Factor IXa active site. In a modified cephalin clotting time assay, in vivo administrition of Factor IXai caused a dose-dependent increase in time to clot formation (3.6-fold increase at the 300 χ/kg dose compared with vehicle-treated control animals, P < 0.05). Mice given Factor IXai and subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion demonstrated reduced microvascular fibrin accumulation by immunoblotting and immunostaining, reduced 111In-labeled platelet deposition (42% decrease, P < 0.05), increased cerebral perfusion (2.6-fold increase in ipsilateral blood flow by laser doppler, P < 0.05), and smaller cerebral infarcts than vehicle- treated controls (70% reduction, P < 0.05) based on triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining of serial cerebral sections. At therapeutically effective doses, Factor IXai was not associated with increased ICH, as opposed to tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) or heparin, both of which significantly increased ICH. Factor IXai was cerebroprotective even when given after the onset of stroke, indicating that microvascular thrombosis continues to evolve (and may be inhibited) even after primary occlusion of a major cerebrovascular tributary.
- Cerebral ischemia
- Factor IX
- Intrinsic coagulation pathway
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy