Genetic variations in the locus encoding the transporter associated with antigen processing, subunit 1 (TAP1), were systematically studied using samples from Caucasians, Africans, Brazilians, and compared with data from chimpanzees. PCR-amplified genomic sequences corresponding to the 11 exons were analyzed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and sequencing. Six nonsynonymous and 2 synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found to be common in one ethnic group or another, and they involved codons 254 (Gly-GGC/Gly-GGT) in exon 3, 333 (Ile-ATC/Val-GTC) in exon 4, 370 (Ala-GCT/Val-GTT) in exon 5, 458 (Val-GTG/Leu-TTG) in exon 6, 518 (Val-GTC/Ile-ATC) in exon 7,637 (Asp-GAC/Gly-GGC), 648 (Arg-CGA/Gln-CAA) and 661 (Pro-CCG/Pro-CCA) in exon 10. At each SNP site the sequence listed first was predominant in all ethnic groups. Several SNPs segregated on the same chromosome regardless of populations and species. Together, the SNPs produced 5 major human TAP1 alleles, 4 of which matched the officially recognized alleles *0101, *02011, *0301, and *0401; the 5th allele differed from each of those by at least 4 SNPs. Overall, TAP1*0101 was the predominant allele in all ethnic groups, with frequencies ranging from 0.667 in Zambians to 0.808 in US Caucasians. The TAP1*0401 frequency showed the greatest difference between Africans (0.221-0.254) and Caucasians (0.033), with Brazilians (0.058) fitting in the middle. Consistent with earlier work based on Caucasians and gorillas, *0101 appeared to be the newest human TAP1 allele, suggesting a dramatic spread of *0101 into all human populations examined. Characterization of TAP1 polymorphisms allowed the design of a PCR-based genotyping scheme that targeted 7 SNP sites and required 2 separate genotyping techniques.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy