T21/DP107, a synthetic leucine zipper-like domain of the HIV-1 envelope gp41, attracts and activates human phagocytes by using G-protein-coupled formyl peptide receptors

Shao Bo Su, Ji Liang Gao, Wang Hua Gong, Nancy M. Dunlop, Philip M. Murphy, Joost J. Oppenheim, Ji Ming Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

A leucine zipper-like domain, T21/DP107, located in the amino terminus of the ectodomain of gp41, is crucial to the formation of fusogenic configuration of the HIV-1 envelope protein gp41. We report that the synthetic T21/DP107 segment is a potent stimulant of migration and calcium mobilization in human monocytes and neutrophils. The activity of T21/DP107 on phagocytes was pertussis toxin-sensitive, suggesting this peptide uses Gi- coupled seven-transmembrane receptor(s). Since the bacterial chemotactic peptide fMLP partially desensitized the calcium-mobilizing activity of T21/DP107 in phagocytes, we postulated that T21/DP107 might preferentially use a lower affinity fMLP receptor. By using cells transfected to express cloned prototype chemotactic N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR) or its variant, FPR-like 1 (FPRL1), we demonstrate that T21/DP107 activates both receptors but has a much higher efficacy for FPRL1. In addition, T21/DP107 at nM concentrations induced migration of FPRL1-transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells. In contrast, fMLP did not induce significant chemotaxis of the same cells at a concentration as high as 50 μM. Although a lipid metabolite, lipoxin A4, was a high-affinity ligand for FPRL1, it was not reported to induce Ca2+ mobilization or chemotaxis in FPRL1-transfected cells. Therefore, T21/DP107 is a first chemotactic peptide agonist identified thus far for FPRL1. Our results suggest that this peptide domain of the HIV-1 gp41 may have the potential to activate host innate immune response by interacting with FPR and FPRL1 on phagocytes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5924-5930
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Immunology
Volume162
Issue number10
StatePublished - May 15 1999
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

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