The objective of this study was to determine and compare if MR contrast agents distributed into various compartments can provide estimation of fractional distribution volume (FDV) in normal and infarcted myocardium using inversion recovery echo-planar MR imaging (IR EPI). Three different types of MR agents were investigated: (a) an extracellular agent, GdDTPA-BMA (0.1 mmol/kg); (b) an intravascular agent, GdDTPA-albumin (0.025 mmol/kg); and (c) an intracellular agent, manganese chloride (0.025 mmol/kg). The null point was determined from a series of IR EPI images in which T1 was varied. Temporal changes in ΔR1 (ΔR1 = 1/T1(post)-1/T1(pre)) were measured during the initial 29-59 min after administration. Rats (n =24) were subjected to 1- h coronary artery occlusion/reperfusion. Histochemical staining confirmed the presence and location of infarction. GdDTPA-BMA caused increase in ΔR1 of infarction < blood < < normal myocardium. ΔR1 ratios were 1.55 ± 0.08 for infarction and 0.33 ± 0.03 for normal myocardium, consistent with FDV of 0.82 ± 0.04 and 0.18 ± 0.01. The fractional distribution of this agent in no myocardium approximated the extracellular space of myocardium. GdDTPA- albumin caused increase in ΔR1 of blood < < infarction < < normal myocardium. ΔR1 ratio in normal, but not infarcted, myocardium was constant at 0.10 ± 0.02 and approximated fractional blood volume. MnCl2 caused equivalent increase in ΔR1 of normal and infarcted myocardium. ΔR1 of normal myocardium did not change overtime, whereas ΔR1 of blood rapidly decreased, leading to overestimation of FDV in normal and infarcted myocardium. In conclusion, extracellular, intravascular and intracellular MR contrast agents exhibited different T1-relaxation kinetics in both normal and infarcted myocardium. Constant ΔR1 ratio (myocardium/blood) after administration of MR contrast agent is a prerequisite for estimation of FDV of MR contrast agent in myocardium.
- Echo-planar MR imaging
- MR contrast media
- Myocardial infarction
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging