T-cell immunity against cytomegalovirus in HIV infection and aging: relationships with inflammation, immune activation, and frailty

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


Both aging and treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are characterized by low-level chronic inflammation and immune activation which contribute to the development of age-related diseases, frailty, and early mortality. Chronic cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is highly prevalent in older adults and HIV-infected populations. A number of studies have shown that CMV induces broad and strong T-cell responses in CMV-seropositive older adults and HIV-infected individuals. CMV infection rarely develops into clinical disease in immunocompetent individuals. However, a large body of literature has shown adverse effects of chronic CMV infection on the health and longevity of these populations. It has been hypothesized that chronic CMV infection may be a driver of chronic inflammation and immune activation, and may further contribute to the development of frailty. Thus, there is a need to better understand the extent of the impact of chronic CMV infection on T-cell immunity and health in aging and HIV infection. In this review, we will address important considerations and challenges in the assessment of chronic CMV infection and CMV-specific T-cell responses. We will then review recent data on relationships between T-cell responses to CMV and levels of inflammatory markers and immune activation, as well as the onset of frailty.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalMedical Microbiology and Immunology
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019



  • Aging
  • CLIP
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Frailty
  • HIV infection
  • Immune activation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Microbiology (medical)

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