Immune parameters were compared in four groups of Ugandan subjects: HIV- and HIV+ adult patients with active pulmonary TB (HIV- PTB n = 38; HIV+ PTB n = 28), patients with HIV infection only (n = 26) and PPD+ healthy controls (n = 25). Compared with healthy controls, CD4 and CD8 T cells from patients with HIV and/or PTB expressed more activation markers (HLA-DR, CD38); their CD8 T cells expressed more CD95 (pre-apoptosis) and less CD28 (co-stimulatory receptor). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with either HIV or PTB were impaired in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production upon antigenic stimulation. PTB (with or without HIV) was characterized by monocytosis, granulocytosis, increased transforming growth factor-beta 1 production and PPD-induced apoptosis. In vivo CD4 T cell depletion, in vitro increased spontaneous CD4 T cell apoptosis and defects in IFN-γ responses upon mitogenic stimulation were restricted to HIV+ subjects (with or without PTB). Overlapping and distinctive immune alterations, associated with PTB and HIV, might explain mutual unfavourable influences of both diseases.
- Transforming growth factor-beta
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