A126-1B2 cells, a PKA (cAMP-dependent protein kinase)-deficient variant of PC12 cells, but not parental PC12 cells, form processes within 15-30 min of exposure to both nerve growth factor (NGF) and activators of protein kinase C when grown on tissue culture plastic (Glowacka and Wagner, J Neurosci Res 25: 453-462, 1990). Time-lapse microscopy has demonstrated that these processes are formed by a novel mechanism, i.e., rapid movement of the cell body away from a point of attachment, which morphologically resembles a growth cone. These 'fast' neurites are attached to the substratum at a number of points, which display membrane activity in the form of active ruffling and the extension of filopodia and membrane pleats. Thus, these processes are formed by a mechanism distinct from that used by PC12 and other neuronal cells to form processes in culture. Wild-type PC12 cells also migrate and form fast neurites in response to a combination of NGF and phorbol 12-myristate 13- acetate (PMA), when they are grown in conditioned media or plates, suggesting that a secreted factor that can bind to the substratum is essential for the rapid formation of these neurites. Similarly, wild-type PC12 cells grown on a laminin-coated substratum also migrate and form 'fast neurites' in response to a combination of NGF and PMA. This rapid migration is attenuated by an anti-α1,β1-integrin antisera, implicating a laminin-integrin interaction; and it is inhibited by α-lactalbumin, suggesting an involvement of a β1,4 galactosyltransferase in the response. The formation of fast neurites is not dependent on concurrent protein synthesis, but it is inhibited by lithium, cytochalasin D, and methylthioadenosine or pretreatment of cells with NGF. Thus PC12 cells grown on the appropriate substrate have the ability to migrate rapidly and thereby form neuron-like processes within minutes of exposure to NGF and PMA. This morphological response to a combination of agents may provide an alternative means by which nerve cells form connections. Alternatively, it may reflect a mechanism that facilitates cellular migration during developmental processes.
- protein kinase C
ASJC Scopus subject areas