Background The objective of this survey was to provide a review of the American College of Surgeons (ACS) scholarship activity. Study Design The domestic ACS scholarship recipient survey was electronically transmitted twice to awardees from 1987 to 2007 (n = 253). Themes of the survey included type of practice, activities during scholarship period, success of peer review funding, and the role of mentors. All survey responses were evaluated using SPSS version 20. Results There were 123 total responses, with 108 separate respondents (94, 1 award; 13, 2 awards; 1, 3 awards). The group averaged 11.8 years in clinical practice, with the majority (90.2%) having an academic appointment. Seventy-seven percent of respondents were on a tenure track, and almost three-quarters (72.4%) of the respondents hold a major leadership position. In terms of research, 67.5% of respondents have received extramural funding; 10.6% have received patents. The average number of publications related to their funded research is 19.2 (range 0 to 180). Most respondents perform peer review of research (73.2%), learned about the peer review process during their funding period (82.1%), and mentor medical students (88.6%). The average number of students currently mentored is 6.4; the average total trainees mentored is 13. Despite the significant research responsibilities of respondents, they still spend more time performing clinical care (49.2%) than research (30.4%). Conclusions The ACS scholarship has a significant impact on the recipient's academic career, even in the setting of increasing clinical burdens. This program also appears to tangentially identify surgeons who become leaders in academic surgery.
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