Surface morphology of the human endometrium. Basic and clinical aspects

George Nikas, Antonis Makrigiannakis, Outi Hovatta, Howard W. Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Scopus citations


The human endometrium is an extremely sensitive target for steroid hormones. During the menstrual cycle, this tissue undergoes dynamic changes that are reflected on the surface morphology of the epithelium and that can be followed by scanning electron microscopy. The morphologic changes peak at the midsecretory phase, with the formation of the so-called pinopodes. Increasing evidence suggests that these pinopodes are accurate markers for endometrial receptivity, and their detection may be of high clinical utility in the preparation of endometrium before embryo transfer. This article recapitulates published figures of endometrial ultrastructure and presents some unpublished data from ongoing studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)316-324
Number of pages9
JournalAnnals of the New York Academy of Sciences
StatePublished - 2000

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • History and Philosophy of Science


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