Supplemental and dietary vitamin E, β-carotene, and vitamin C intakes and prostate cancer risk

Victoria A. Kirsh, Richard B. Hayes, Susan T. Mayne, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Amy F. Subar, L. Beth Dixon, Demetrius Albanes, Gerald L. Andriole, Donald A. Urban, Ulrike Peters

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Vitamin E, β-carotene, and vitamin C are micronutrient antioxidants that protect cells from oxidative damage involved in prostate carcinogenesis. In separate trials, supplemental vitamin E was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer among smokers and supplemental β-carotene was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer among men with low baseline plasma β-carotene levels. Methods: We evaluated the association between intake of these micronutrient antioxidants from foods and supplements and the risk of prostate cancer among men in the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. At baseline, trial participants completed a 137-item food frequency questionnaire that included detailed questions on 12 individual supplements. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: We identified 1338 cases of prostate cancer among 29361 men during up to 8 years of follow-up. Overall, there was no association between prostate cancer risk and dietary or supplemental intake of vitamin E, β-carotene, or vitamin C. However, among current and recent (i.e., within the previous 10 years) smokers, decreasing risks of advanced prostate cancer (i.e., Gleason score ≥7 or stage III or IV) were associated with increasing dose (RR for >400 IU/day versus none = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.12 to 0.68; Ptrend = .01) and duration (RR for ≥10 years of use versus none = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.09 to 0.96; Ptrend = .01) of supplemental vitamin E use. Supplemental β-carotene intake at a dose level of at least 2000 μg/day was associated with decreased prostate cancer risk in men with low (below the median of 4129 μg/day) dietary β-carotene intake (RR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.33 to 0.81). Among smokers, the age-adjusted rate of advanced prostate cancer was 492 per 100 000 person-years in those who did not take supplemental vitamin E, 153 per 100 000 person-years in those who took more than 400 IU/day of supplemental vitamin E, and 157 per 100 000 person-years in those who took supplemental vitamin E for 10 or more years. Among men with low dietary β-carotene intake, the age-adjusted rate of prostate cancer was 1122 per 100 000 person-years in those who did not take supplemental β-carotene, and 623 per 100 000 person-years in those who took at least 2000 μg/day of supplemental β-carotene. Conclusions: Our results do not provide strong support for population-wide implementation of high-dose antioxidant supplementation for the prevention of prostate cancer. However, vitamin E supplementation in male smokers and β-carotene supplementation in men with low dietary β-carotene intakes were associated with reduced risk of this disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)245-254
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the National Cancer Institute
Volume98
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 15 2006
Externally publishedYes

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Carotenoids
Vitamin E
Ascorbic Acid
Prostatic Neoplasms
Confidence Intervals
Antioxidants
Micronutrients
Neoplasm Grading
Dietary Supplements
Early Detection of Cancer
Proportional Hazards Models
Ovarian Neoplasms
Prostate
Colorectal Neoplasms
Lung Neoplasms
Carcinogenesis
Food

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology

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Supplemental and dietary vitamin E, β-carotene, and vitamin C intakes and prostate cancer risk. / Kirsh, Victoria A.; Hayes, Richard B.; Mayne, Susan T.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Subar, Amy F.; Dixon, L. Beth; Albanes, Demetrius; Andriole, Gerald L.; Urban, Donald A.; Peters, Ulrike.

In: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 98, No. 4, 15.02.2006, p. 245-254.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kirsh, VA, Hayes, RB, Mayne, ST, Chatterjee, N, Subar, AF, Dixon, LB, Albanes, D, Andriole, GL, Urban, DA & Peters, U 2006, 'Supplemental and dietary vitamin E, β-carotene, and vitamin C intakes and prostate cancer risk', Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 245-254. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djj050
Kirsh, Victoria A. ; Hayes, Richard B. ; Mayne, Susan T. ; Chatterjee, Nilanjan ; Subar, Amy F. ; Dixon, L. Beth ; Albanes, Demetrius ; Andriole, Gerald L. ; Urban, Donald A. ; Peters, Ulrike. / Supplemental and dietary vitamin E, β-carotene, and vitamin C intakes and prostate cancer risk. In: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2006 ; Vol. 98, No. 4. pp. 245-254.
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abstract = "Background: Vitamin E, β-carotene, and vitamin C are micronutrient antioxidants that protect cells from oxidative damage involved in prostate carcinogenesis. In separate trials, supplemental vitamin E was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer among smokers and supplemental β-carotene was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer among men with low baseline plasma β-carotene levels. Methods: We evaluated the association between intake of these micronutrient antioxidants from foods and supplements and the risk of prostate cancer among men in the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. At baseline, trial participants completed a 137-item food frequency questionnaire that included detailed questions on 12 individual supplements. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95{\%} confidence intervals (CIs). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: We identified 1338 cases of prostate cancer among 29361 men during up to 8 years of follow-up. Overall, there was no association between prostate cancer risk and dietary or supplemental intake of vitamin E, β-carotene, or vitamin C. However, among current and recent (i.e., within the previous 10 years) smokers, decreasing risks of advanced prostate cancer (i.e., Gleason score ≥7 or stage III or IV) were associated with increasing dose (RR for >400 IU/day versus none = 0.29, 95{\%} CI = 0.12 to 0.68; Ptrend = .01) and duration (RR for ≥10 years of use versus none = 0.30, 95{\%} CI = 0.09 to 0.96; Ptrend = .01) of supplemental vitamin E use. Supplemental β-carotene intake at a dose level of at least 2000 μg/day was associated with decreased prostate cancer risk in men with low (below the median of 4129 μg/day) dietary β-carotene intake (RR = 0.52, 95{\%} CI = 0.33 to 0.81). Among smokers, the age-adjusted rate of advanced prostate cancer was 492 per 100 000 person-years in those who did not take supplemental vitamin E, 153 per 100 000 person-years in those who took more than 400 IU/day of supplemental vitamin E, and 157 per 100 000 person-years in those who took supplemental vitamin E for 10 or more years. Among men with low dietary β-carotene intake, the age-adjusted rate of prostate cancer was 1122 per 100 000 person-years in those who did not take supplemental β-carotene, and 623 per 100 000 person-years in those who took at least 2000 μg/day of supplemental β-carotene. Conclusions: Our results do not provide strong support for population-wide implementation of high-dose antioxidant supplementation for the prevention of prostate cancer. However, vitamin E supplementation in male smokers and β-carotene supplementation in men with low dietary β-carotene intakes were associated with reduced risk of this disease.",
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T1 - Supplemental and dietary vitamin E, β-carotene, and vitamin C intakes and prostate cancer risk

AU - Kirsh, Victoria A.

AU - Hayes, Richard B.

AU - Mayne, Susan T.

AU - Chatterjee, Nilanjan

AU - Subar, Amy F.

AU - Dixon, L. Beth

AU - Albanes, Demetrius

AU - Andriole, Gerald L.

AU - Urban, Donald A.

AU - Peters, Ulrike

PY - 2006/2/15

Y1 - 2006/2/15

N2 - Background: Vitamin E, β-carotene, and vitamin C are micronutrient antioxidants that protect cells from oxidative damage involved in prostate carcinogenesis. In separate trials, supplemental vitamin E was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer among smokers and supplemental β-carotene was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer among men with low baseline plasma β-carotene levels. Methods: We evaluated the association between intake of these micronutrient antioxidants from foods and supplements and the risk of prostate cancer among men in the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. At baseline, trial participants completed a 137-item food frequency questionnaire that included detailed questions on 12 individual supplements. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: We identified 1338 cases of prostate cancer among 29361 men during up to 8 years of follow-up. Overall, there was no association between prostate cancer risk and dietary or supplemental intake of vitamin E, β-carotene, or vitamin C. However, among current and recent (i.e., within the previous 10 years) smokers, decreasing risks of advanced prostate cancer (i.e., Gleason score ≥7 or stage III or IV) were associated with increasing dose (RR for >400 IU/day versus none = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.12 to 0.68; Ptrend = .01) and duration (RR for ≥10 years of use versus none = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.09 to 0.96; Ptrend = .01) of supplemental vitamin E use. Supplemental β-carotene intake at a dose level of at least 2000 μg/day was associated with decreased prostate cancer risk in men with low (below the median of 4129 μg/day) dietary β-carotene intake (RR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.33 to 0.81). Among smokers, the age-adjusted rate of advanced prostate cancer was 492 per 100 000 person-years in those who did not take supplemental vitamin E, 153 per 100 000 person-years in those who took more than 400 IU/day of supplemental vitamin E, and 157 per 100 000 person-years in those who took supplemental vitamin E for 10 or more years. Among men with low dietary β-carotene intake, the age-adjusted rate of prostate cancer was 1122 per 100 000 person-years in those who did not take supplemental β-carotene, and 623 per 100 000 person-years in those who took at least 2000 μg/day of supplemental β-carotene. Conclusions: Our results do not provide strong support for population-wide implementation of high-dose antioxidant supplementation for the prevention of prostate cancer. However, vitamin E supplementation in male smokers and β-carotene supplementation in men with low dietary β-carotene intakes were associated with reduced risk of this disease.

AB - Background: Vitamin E, β-carotene, and vitamin C are micronutrient antioxidants that protect cells from oxidative damage involved in prostate carcinogenesis. In separate trials, supplemental vitamin E was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer among smokers and supplemental β-carotene was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer among men with low baseline plasma β-carotene levels. Methods: We evaluated the association between intake of these micronutrient antioxidants from foods and supplements and the risk of prostate cancer among men in the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. At baseline, trial participants completed a 137-item food frequency questionnaire that included detailed questions on 12 individual supplements. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: We identified 1338 cases of prostate cancer among 29361 men during up to 8 years of follow-up. Overall, there was no association between prostate cancer risk and dietary or supplemental intake of vitamin E, β-carotene, or vitamin C. However, among current and recent (i.e., within the previous 10 years) smokers, decreasing risks of advanced prostate cancer (i.e., Gleason score ≥7 or stage III or IV) were associated with increasing dose (RR for >400 IU/day versus none = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.12 to 0.68; Ptrend = .01) and duration (RR for ≥10 years of use versus none = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.09 to 0.96; Ptrend = .01) of supplemental vitamin E use. Supplemental β-carotene intake at a dose level of at least 2000 μg/day was associated with decreased prostate cancer risk in men with low (below the median of 4129 μg/day) dietary β-carotene intake (RR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.33 to 0.81). Among smokers, the age-adjusted rate of advanced prostate cancer was 492 per 100 000 person-years in those who did not take supplemental vitamin E, 153 per 100 000 person-years in those who took more than 400 IU/day of supplemental vitamin E, and 157 per 100 000 person-years in those who took supplemental vitamin E for 10 or more years. Among men with low dietary β-carotene intake, the age-adjusted rate of prostate cancer was 1122 per 100 000 person-years in those who did not take supplemental β-carotene, and 623 per 100 000 person-years in those who took at least 2000 μg/day of supplemental β-carotene. Conclusions: Our results do not provide strong support for population-wide implementation of high-dose antioxidant supplementation for the prevention of prostate cancer. However, vitamin E supplementation in male smokers and β-carotene supplementation in men with low dietary β-carotene intakes were associated with reduced risk of this disease.

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