A 47-year-old man presented with complaints of progressive diplopia in downgaze and a painful firm mass on the left medial superior canthus. On examination, there was marked hyperemia of the superior bulbar conjunctiva of the left eye. Systemic examination revealed erythematous papules on his trunk and pulmonary infiltrates. CT of the orbits revealed a fusiform enlargement of the left superior oblique muscle and diffuse infiltration of the left temporal region. Biopsy of the left superior oblique muscle and temporal muscle disclosed Congo red deposits that show apple-green birefringence under polarized light. A comprehensive systemic investigation failed to show any disease that could explain the amyloid deposits. The patient was then diagnosed as having primary systemic amyloidosis. We think that this case highlights the necessity of a biopsy in any atypical extraocular muscle enlargement before a diagnosis of myositis.
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