31P Spectroscopic localization using pinwheel NMR excitation pulses

Christopher J. Hardy, Paul A. Bottomley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Spectroscopic imaging with a one‐dimensional phase‐encoding gradient and surface‐coil reception relies on the restricted range of sensitivity of the surface coil to provide localization in the dimensions transverse to the coil axis and consequently suffers from relatively poor localization in these dimensions. A two‐dimensional (2D) cylindrically selective excitation pulse with a large spectral bandwidth is presented here to remedy this problem. The gradient waveforms are derived from multiple spirals in k space which form an overall pinwheel pattern, resulting in a pulse which is much shorter than the equivalent single‐spiral trajectory. Nonuniform traversal of the spirals further reduces the pulse width under conditions of gradient slew‐rate limitations, yielding overall gains in bandwidth of up to about 30 compared with the equivalent single‐spiral trajectory traversed at constant angular rate. The accompanying rf waveform is obtained by weighted 2D Fourier transformation of the desired sensitivity profile. A new weighting factor is introduced into the rf waveform to compensate for nonuniform sampling of k space by the pinwheel near the origin. This factor is independent of the weighting used to account for the rate of traversal of the trajectory and is applicable to 2D pulse design in general. Pulse sequences employing pinwheel excitation in conjunction with either phase‐encoding or slice‐selective inversion are used to produce multiple‐voxel and single‐voxel localization in a human heart and a phantom. Pinwheel pulses may be used to advantage on moieties with long spin‐lattice relaxation times and short transverse relaxation times and are therefore ideal for applications in phosphorus (13P) NMR. © 1991 Academic Press, Inc.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)315-327
Number of pages13
JournalMagnetic resonance in medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1991
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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