Background. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is an established therapy for a variety of hematological diseases with curative potential. However, despite improvements in supportive care, pulmonary complications remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Methods. We report on a patient who received a double lung transplantation (LTX) for therapy-refractory bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) associated with extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic BMT. Results. At present, 38 months after BMT and 23 months after LTX, the patient is in complete hematological and cytogenetic remission and without signs of respiratory distress. Conclusions. This case illustrates that lung transplantation could be a therapeutic option in selected patients with BO after allogeneic BMT that is associated with extensive chronic GVHD and who are refractory to conventional immunosuppressive therapy.
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