Substance use and HIV stage at entry into care among people with HIV

Canada Parrish, Bridget M. Whitney, Robin M. Nance, Nancy Puttkammer, Paul Fishman, Katerina Christopoulos, Julia Fleming, Sonya Heath, William Christopher Mathews, Geetanjali Chander, Richard D. Moore, Sonia Napravnik, Allison Webel, Joseph Delaney, Heidi M. Crane, Mari M. Kitahata

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Abstract: Background: Information regarding the impact of substance use on the timing of entry into HIV care is lacking. Better understanding of this relationship can help guide approaches and policies to improve HIV testing and linkage. Methods: We examined the effect of specific substances on stage of HIV disease at entry into care in over 5000 persons with HIV (PWH) newly enrolling in care. Substance use was obtained from the AUDIT-C and ASSIST instruments. We examined the association between early entry into care and substance use (high-risk alcohol, methamphetamine, cocaine/crack, illicit opioids, marijuana) using logistic and relative risk regression models adjusting for demographic factors, mental health symptoms and diagnoses, and clinical site. Results: We found that current methamphetamine use, past and current cocaine and marijuana use was associated with earlier entry into care compared with individuals who reported no use of these substances. Conclusion: Early entry into care among those with substance use suggests that HIV testing may be differentially offered to people with known HIV risk factors, and that individuals with substances use disorders may be more likely to be tested and linked to care due to increased interactions with the healthcare system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number153
JournalArchives of Public Health
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2021


  • Early entry into care
  • Risk factors
  • Substance use

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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