Studying sex and gender differences in pain and analgesia: A consensus report

Joel D. Greenspan, Rebecca M. Craft, Linda LeResche, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Karen J. Berkley, Roger B. Fillingim, Michael S. Gold, Anita Holdcroft, Stefan Lautenbacher, Emeran A. Mayer, Jeffrey S. Mogil, Anne Z. Murphy, Richard J. Traub

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

620 Scopus citations


In September 2006, members of the Sex, Gender and Pain Special Interest Group of the International Association for the Study of Pain met to discuss the following: (1) what is known about sex and gender differences in pain and analgesia; (2) what are the "best practice" guidelines for pain research with respect to sex and gender; and (3) what are the crucial questions to address in the near future? The resulting consensus presented herein includes input from basic science, clinical and psychosocial pain researchers, as well as from recognized experts in sexual differentiation and reproductive endocrinology. We intend this document to serve as a utilitarian and thought-provoking guide for future research on sex and gender differences in pain and analgesia, both for those currently working in this field as well as those still wondering, "Do I really need to study females?".

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S26-S45
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
StatePublished - Nov 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Estrogens
  • Gonadal hormones
  • Sex differences

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine


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