MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulators of gene expression that control many biological processes in development, differentiation, growth and metabolism. Their expression levels, small size, abundance of repetitive copies in the genome and mode of action pose unique challenges in studies elucidating the function of miRNAs. New technologies for identification, expression profiling and target gene validation, as well as manipulation of miRNA expression in vivo, will facilitate the study of their contribution to biological processes and disease. Such information will be crucial to exploit the emerging knowledge of miRNAs for the development of new human therapeutic applications.
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