Kidney transplantation has become a routine procedure in the treatment of patients with kidney failure, and requires collaboration of experts from different disciplines, such as nephrology, surgery, immunology, pathology, infectious disease medicine, cardiology, and oncology. Grafts can be obtained from deceased or living donors, with different logistical requirements and implications for long-term graft patency. 1-year graft survival rates are greater than 95% in many centres but improvement of long-term function remains a challenge. New developments in molecular immunology and computational biology have increased precision of donor and recipient matching of HLA and non-HLA compatibility. Individual omics-wide molecular diagnostics, extracorporeal therapies, and drug developments allow for precise individual decision making and treatment. Tolerance induction by mixed chimerism without toxic conditioning and with a low risk of graft versus host disease is a visionary but realistic goal. Some of these innovations are already used in modern transplant centres and will allow advancement in long-term allograft preservation.
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