Strain-level analysis of gut-resident pro-inflammatory viridans group Streptococci suppressed by long-term cotrimoxazole prophylaxis among HIV-positive children in Zimbabwe

Ethan K. Gough, Claire D. Bourke, Chipo Berejena, Annie Shonhai, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Andrew J. Prendergast, Amee R. Manges

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debatepeer-review

Abstract

Antimicrobials have become a mainstay of healthcare in the past century due to their activity against pathogens. More recently, it has become clear that they can also affect health via their impact on the microbiota and inflammation. This may explain some of their clinical benefits despite global increases in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and reduced antimicrobial effectiveness. We showed in a randomized controlled trial of stopping versus continuing cotrimoxazole prophylaxis among HIV-positive Zimbabwean children taking antiretroviral therapy (ART), that continuation of cotrimoxazole persistently suppressed gut-resident viridans group streptococcal species (VGS) that were associated with intestinal inflammation. In this addendum, we provide a broader overview of how antibiotics can shape the microbiota and use high read-depth whole metagenome sequencing data from our published study to investigate whether (i) the impact of cotrimoxazole on gut VGS and (ii) VGS associated inflammation, is attributable to strain-level variability. We focus on S. salivarius, the VGS species that was most prevalent in the cohort and for which there was sufficient genome coverage to differentiate strains. We demonstrate that suppression of S. salivarius by cotrimoxazole is not strain specific, nor did stool concentration of the pro-inflammatory mediator myeloperoxidase vary by S. salivarius strain. We also show that gut-resident S. salivarius strains present in this study population are distinct from common oral strains. This is the first analysis of how cotrimoxazole prophylaxis used according to international treatment guidelines for children living with HIV influences the gut microbiome at the strain-level. We also provide a detailed review of the literature on the mechanisms by which suppression of VGS may act synergistically with cotrimoxazole’s anti-inflammatory effects to reduce gut inflammation. A greater understanding of the sub-clinical effects of antibiotics offers new insights into their responsible clinical use.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1104-1115
Number of pages12
JournalGut Microbes
Volume11
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 3 2020

Keywords

  • HIV
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • cotrimoxazole
  • gut health
  • immune modulation
  • inflammation
  • microbiota
  • septra
  • septrin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Gastroenterology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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