Steroid-responsive myeloneuropathy in a man dually infected with HIV-1 and HTLV-I

J. C. McArthur, J. W. Griffin, D. R. Cornblath, D. E. Griffin, T. Tesoriero, R. Kuncl, C. J. Gibbs, H. Farzadegan, R. T. Johnson

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Abstract

Two human retroviruses, HIV-1 and HTLV-I, have been associated with myelopathies in addition to other neurologic disorders. We report an American dually infected with HIV-1 and HTLV-I who developed steroid-responsive myeloneuropathy. This 28-year-old bisexual man developed interstitial pneumonitis and a transient midthoracic sensory level followed by the evolution of a slowly progressive spastic paraparesis and sensorimotor neuropathy. Serologic studies demonstrated coinfection with both HIV-1 and HTLV-I. Peripheral blood absolute CD4 count was persistently within the normal range. Cranial MRI was normal and spinal MRI showed T3-T10 atrophy. Serial CSF analyses demonstrated marked intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-I IgG, lymphocytic pleocytosis, elevated protein and immunoglobulin G, and oligoclonal bands. HIV-1 was isolated from CSF but not from peripheral nerve. Lymphoproliferative studies confirmed spontaneous proliferation in both blood and CSF. Soluble interleukin 2 receptor and soluble CD8 were greatly elevated in blood and CSF when compared with patients with HIV-related vacuolar myelopathy and seronegative patients with other causes of myelopathy. Nerve biopsy showed epi- and endoneurial CD8+ lymphocytic infiltration without vasculitis; muscle biopsy showed features of acute and chronic denervation. A 6-week course of prednisone produced sustained improvement in leg strength and walking times. We speculate that the myeloneuropathy was caused by HTLV-I in the setting of coinfection with HIV-1.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)938-944
Number of pages7
JournalNeurology
Volume40
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1990

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

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