(Chemical Equation Presented) Diene substituent effects on the regiochemical and stereochemical outcomes of uncatalyzed Diels-Alder reactions of N-alkoxycarbonyl-1,2-dihydropyridines with both styrene and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) were studied. Alkyl substitution on the diene in all cases examined resulted in a kinetic preference for 7-endo isomers (7-phenyl 51-96% exo and 7-acetyl 54-96% exo). For both dienophiles, the highest stereoselectivities (≥89% endo) were observed with 5-methyl or 6-methyl substituents in the dihydropyridine. Theoretical calculations of the energies of gas phase endo and exo transition states at the RHF/ 3-21G(*) predict that total entropy, ΔS,total, considerations favor endo cycloadducts for both dienophiles with DHP, while total energy considerations, ΔE ‡ o, favor endo cycloadducts for styrene and exo cycloadducts for MVK. At this level, favored endo-phenyl isomers are correctly predicted for styrene reactions, but the calculation of 7-acetyl exo or endo isomer dominance is diene-substituent-dependent for MVK reactions. The preference for endo addition of MVK to the parent, 5-methyl, and 6-methyl-DHPs was successfully predicted by calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G* theory level.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Organic Chemistry