Standing the test of time: Long-term outcome of reconstruction of the exstrophy bladder

Christopher R.J. Woodhouse, Amanda C. North, John P. Gearhart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The surgical management of classic bladder exstrophy has evolved over time. Different techniques are used to address the challenge of reconstructing these patients. We review the long-term outcomes of bladder exstrophy treatment from the published literature with regard to urinary continence, voiding and secondary complications. Continence now can be achieved in up to 80% of children in specialist centres. Whether such success can sustained into adult life is uncertain. About 40% of adults are dry in the best hands. Up to 84% of children can void, but there is some evidence that this function is lost with time in 70%. The need for bladder augmentation is widely variable between series, reported in 0-70% of children. This reduces the ability to void spontaneously to about 50% of children. It brings with it the later risk of metabolic disturbance and stone formation. Adults with exstrophy have a 694-fold increase in the risk of bladder cancer by the age of 40 years.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)244-249
Number of pages6
JournalWorld journal of urology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 2006


  • Bladder exstrophy
  • Follow-up
  • Urinary incontinence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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