Standardized Work Rounds Enhance Teaming, Comprehensiveness, Shared Mental Model Development, and Achievement Rate of End-of-Shift Goals∗

Samantha Lucrezia, Julia Noether, Anthony A. Sochet

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objectives: To determine the impact of standardized PICU work rounds on the frequency of ideal teaming behaviors, rounds comprehensiveness, shared mental model index development, and rate of completed end-of-shift goals. Design: A single-center, pre-post, prospective cohort study. Setting: A 259-bed, quaternary, pediatric referral center. Patients: Children 0-18 years old from November 2018 to January 2020. Interventions: Standardized, bedside, nurse-led PICU work rounds, emphasizing ideal teaming behaviors using a collaboratively developed rounding script and quality/safety checklist. Measurements and Main Results: Study data were collected by direct observation and immediate postrounds participant questionnaire data. Primary outcomes were frequency of observed ideal teaming behaviors, rounds comprehensiveness, efficiency (rounds content divided by duration), shared mental model index (congruence among rounds participants regarding key healthcare data and planning), rounds face validity, and achievement rate of rounds-established, end-of-shift goals. During study, 154 encounters were observed (50 preintervention, 52 after Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle 1, and 52 after Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle 2). We observed improvements in overall shared mental model index (24-87%), rounds comprehensiveness (72-98%), and ideal teaming behaviors (including closed-loop communication: 82-100%; responsibility delegation: 74-100%; interdependence behaviors: 26-98%, all p < 0.01) by the end of study. Nursing presentations accounted for 3.6 ± 1.5 minutes of rounds and rounds duration was unchanged postintervention (11 ± 5 min preintervention and 11 ± 4 min after Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle 2, p > 0.99). Face validity, assessed using questionnaire data from 953 participants, revealed positive attitudes regarding efficiency, clarity, and participant self-value. Greatest enhancements in self-value were noted among advanced practice providers and respiratory therapists. On exploratory modeling, we noted associations between ideal teaming behaviors, rounds comprehensiveness, and shared mental model index. Similarly, we noted a positive association between the shared mental model index and the rate of achieved rounds-established, end-of-shift goals (odds ratio, 8.9; 95% CI, 1.7-46; p < 0.01). Conclusions: Standardization of PICU work rounds may encourage ideal teaming behaviors, enhance rounds comprehensiveness, strengthen the congruence of participant shared mental model, and affect the rate of achieved goals established during rounds without compromising workplace efficiency.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)354-364
Number of pages11
JournalPediatric Critical Care Medicine
StateAccepted/In press - 2021


  • collaboration
  • pediatric critical care medicine
  • pediatric intensive care unit
  • shared mental model
  • team science
  • work rounds

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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