Standardized framework for evaluating costs of active case-finding programs: An analysis of two programs in Cambodia and Tajikistan

Youngji Jo, Farangiz Mirzoeva, Monyrath Chry, Zhi Zhen Qin, Andrew Codlin, Oktam Bobokhojaev, Jacob Creswell, Hojoon Sohn

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1 Scopus citations


Introduction Over the years, technological and process innovations enabled active case finding (ACF) programs to expand their capacities and scope to have evolved to close gaps in missing TB patients globally. However, with increased ACF program’s operational complexity and a need for significant resource commitments, a comprehensive, transparent, and standardized approach in evaluating costs of ACF programs is needed to properly determine costs and value of ACF programs. Methods Based on reviews of program activity and financial reports, multiple interviews with program managers of two TB REACH funded ACF programs deployed in Cambodia and Tajikistan, we first identified common program components, which formed the basis of the cost data collection, analysis, reporting framework. Within each program component and sub-activity group, cost data were collected and organized by relevant resource types (human resource, capital, recurrent, and overhead costs). Total shared, indirect and overhead costs were apportioned into each activity category based on direct human resource contribution (e.g. a number of staff and their relative level of effort dedicated to each program component). Capital assets were assessed specific to program components and were annualized based on their expected useful life and a 3% discount rate. All costs were assessed based on the service provider perspective and expressed in 2015 USD. Results Over the two program years (April 2013 to December 2015), the Cambodia and Tajikistan ACF programs cumulated a total cost of $336,951 and $771,429 to screen 68,846 and 1,980,516 target population, bacteriologically test 4,589 and 19,764 presumptive TB, diagnose 731 and 2,246 TB patients in the respective programs. Recurrent costs were the largest cost components (54% and 34%) of the total costs for the respective programs and Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) testing incurred largest program component/activity cost for both programs. Cost per screening was $0.63 and $0.10 and cost per Xpert test was $25 and $18; Cost per TB case detected (Xpert) was $373 and $343 in Cambodia and Tajikistan. Conclusions Results from two contextually and programmatically different multi-component ACF programs demonstrate that our tool is fully capable of comprehensively and transparently evaluating and comparing costs of various ACF programs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0228216
JournalPloS one
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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