Study Design. Case reports of stage 4 compressive-extension injury (CES-4). Objective. To present CES-4, which has been known as a theoretical stage. Summary of Background Data. Compressive-extension stage 3 and 4 lesion has been considered as theoretical stages between the mild and advanced lesions of the compressive-extension phylogeny. Methods. Clinical and radiologic details are presented documenting the CES-4 injury. Results. The authors have encountered 2 cases of CES-4 injury and in this study report the radiographic findings and describe the surgical treatment of the cases. Conclusion. CES-4 is not a theoretical stage.
- Cervical spine
- Compressive-extension injury
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
- Clinical Neurology